What are some specific causes?
- Certain prescription drugs (including, but not limited to: android, casodex, eulexin, ketoconazole, lunesta, lupron,
metronidazole, nilandron, serostim, spironolactone, tagamet, testoderm, valera, vantis, viadur and zoladex).
- Excessive marijuana use.
- Anabolic steroid use.
- Excessive weight gain/obesity.
- Androgen insensitivity.
- Certain hormone-secreting lung or testicular tumors.
- Cirrhosis of the liver or kidney failure.
- Alcoholism.
- Chronic anti-retroviral therapy.

Is it dangerous?
- In and of itself, gynecomastia is not dangerous. However, imaging and physical exams should occur to rule out a possible
- Breast cancer occurs in about 2000 males each year in the United States. Signs of cancer include a hard, fixed lump, one-sided breast enlargement, skin ulceration or bloody nipple discharge.

How is it diagnosed?
- Gynecomastia has a characteristic appearance on imaging exams. You will likely be imaged with a mammogram and
ultrasound of both of your breasts.
- Physical exam.

What can be done to treat it?
- If a specific cause is found, treating the cause may reduce or eliminate breast enlargement.
- Much of the time a specific cause is not discovered; management of any discomfort becomes the focus of treatment.
- Rarely breast reduction surgery is recommended.

This article was provided to 9NEWS by the Breast Care Center at St. Joseph Hospital.